OVERCOMING DYSLEXIA
SUMMARY OF THE BOOK

This book is a comprehensive book for parents and teachers who want to know more about dyslexia.  The author, Sally Shaywitz, is a renowed author and speaker for the cause of learning disabilities.  She is also a neuroscientist, and Professor of Pediatrics at Yale.

She explains the myths that surround this disability.  The book instructs parents how they can help their child who has been diagnosed with dyslexia.  She lays out a program that will help parents every step of the way with grade to grade suggestions.

On this page:

Dyslexia Definition


Title:           Overcoming Dyslexia
Author:       Sally Shaywitz, MD
Publisher:   Alfred A Knopf, New York, 2003

 

According to Dr. Shaywitz, “dyslexia reflects difficulty getting to the basic sounds of language.”  This difficulty often requires the student to focus more intently while reading and therefore looks like the dyslexia student isn’t attentive.

This book is a comprehensive book for parents and teachers who want to know more about dyslexia.  She explains the myths that surround this disability.  The book instructs parents how they can help their child who has been diagnosed with dyslexia.  She lays out a program that will help parents every step of the way with grade to grade suggestions.

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Reading Success

According to Dr. Shaywitz a student “with a reading disability who is not identified early may require as much as 150 – 300 hours of intensive instruction.”  Her advice for intensive instruction would be at least 90 minutes a day for 4 or 5 days a week over 1 to 3 years.

Getting early help is a necessity if you want your child to have reading success.  Don’t wait for teachers, school personnel or relatives to say, “just wait, they’ll outgrow this stage!”  The earlier your child gets help the more likely he will be to be a successful reader.

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Fluency

Dr. Shaywitz says this about fluency, “fluency forms the bridge between decoding and comprehension…”

Four correct readings are needed for automatic recognition of any word.  Accuracy doesn’t always translate to fluency.  Silent readings don’t help fluency.


Students are expected to be fluent readers by the end of 2nd grade yet only 56% of 4th graders are fluent readers.  Repeated exposure to unknown words help with reading fluency.  It takes four readings of the same passage for automatic recognition of a word.


Success for teaching fluency:

·                  Focus on child’s oral reading.

·                  Practice by reading and rereading.

·                  Feedback as the child reads.



Teachers need to model modulation, stress on words and how to end a sentence or question.


Dr. Shaywitz says that repeat oral reading is a must!  She says that repeated readings for a dyslexic child may not help with fluency but it will help with word recognition.



A person with dyslexia processes words differently in the brain.  Many times words are mispronounced which makes storing and retrieving the word more difficult for a dyslexic.  These difficult words need to be practiced again and again orally with a teacher or parent so that the student will be able to build “the neural model for that word and connect relevant information to it.”



A dyslexic needs to overlearn!  Repetition, drill and practice are the key words.  Just as an athete overtrains their specific motor skills a dyslexic must overlearn so that there is no active attention or conscious that so that automaticity develops.



Repeated readings of paragraphs, phrases, and words are a must!  Practice, practice, practice is the key to fluency which leads to better comprehension.  The more fluent a reader, the better comprehension will be.

Reading fun short poetry is a good method for practice reading. Read 5 – 6 minutes a day to practice fluency.

Do this with paragraphs, phrases or single words. Choose only one of these methods per day to practice.

Fourth grade reading becomes more difficult because there is a tremendous surge in irregular words.  This is why reading practice 5 to 6 minutes a day becomes so crucial.

Here are a couple of websites that provide practice:

Neuhaus.org  is a website that has practice for developing accuracy and fluency.

Oxtonhouse.com  has reading speed drills.

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Correct Words Read Graph

Dr. Shaywitz says that the following should be the increase in correct words read per minute per week:

Grade                         Realistic                              Ambitious

1st                             2 wpm                                 3 wpm

2nd                            1.50 wpm                             2 wpm
3rd                             1 wpm                                 1.50 wpm
4th                              .85 wpm                             1.10 wpm
5th                              .50 wpm                               .80 wpm
6th                              .30 wpm                               .65 wpm

Procedure:

  1. Select 2 or 3 paragraphs from passages he has already read.  He should know 19 out of 20 words.


  2. Have him read as quickly and accurately as possible.



  3. Time and mark (on a separate copy) words he doesn’t know.  If he self corrects in 3 seconds, the word is counted correctly.  If he doesn’t get the word in 3 seconds, give it to him.


  4. Count the number of words.  Subtract the incorrect ones, X by 60.  Take the total divide by 60 will equal CWPM (correct words per minute). OR have the student read for 1 minute and stop.  Count the number of words read and subtract the incorrect ones.  This will be CWPM.

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Comprehension

Here are some ways to enhance comprehension before you read the book, as you read the book and after you read the book:


  • BEFORE YOU READ THE BOOK:  Look at the cover and discuss what the book might be about.  Open the book and point out things in the pictures the child needs to know.  Maps or other visuals may help with understanding.


  • AS YOU READ THE BOOK:  Within the first paragraph or two ask the reader what they know so far about the character and what might happen.  Who, What, Where, How, Why questions are the keys to understanding the foundation of the story.

    Ask your child what different phrases mean.  Focus in on some new vocabulary words.

    Periodically ask the student to summarize what has already happened.  Before reading the last chapter or pages have him predict what might happen.


  • AFTER YOU READ THE BOOK:  Ask the student who their favorite character was and why.  Have the child make a story board showing one event in each chapter.

    Ask the reader if they have a different ending for the book.


  • GET A LIBRARY CARD:  Go to story time at the library or local book store.  As soon as it is allowed, get a library card for your child.  Help them pick books that will interest them.

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Making Reading Fun

Here are some fun reading activities you can try with your children:

  •  Word mystery – finding out how to say a new word and learning new definitions.

  • Explore new places that you would never travel to outside of a book.

  • Become the character.  Dress up as that character while reading the book.

  • Be the Character by eating, drinking acting like the character.

 

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Reading With Your Child

Read with your child at least four times a week.  This means your child should be reading to you as well as you reading to them.  It doesn’t have to be an hour.  Reading just 10 to 15 minutes consistently three or four times a week will give your child a leg above the average reader.  If your child has a learning disability, then it is doubly important to read together nightly.

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Vocabulary

Teaching Vocabulary

Most words are learned implicitly, through everyday usage.  If taught explicitly, then use words within their readings.  Words should also be within their sphere of influence and background knowledge so that the meaning of the word will mean something. Learning words for the sake of learning a word is not useful because the child won’t bother to use the word and it will soon be forgotten.


Vocabulary Activities


Have students write down two unfamiliar words from each chapter.  Then have them look up the words in the dictionary and a thesaurus to find the definition and other words which mean the same thing and opposites.

Post one of the words on the bulletin board or refrigerator.  Everyday have your child use it in a sentence.

Give rewards for each time the student uses the word correctly without your prompting.

If the word is a place like the Eiffel Tower, then some background knowledge will be needed to understand what this is.  Using a map to show that this place is in Paris and that Paris is in France and France is in Europe will help students have a visual clue as well as reviewing (or introducing) them to places in the world.

The larger a child’s vocabulary bank, the easier it will be for the student to relate to new information.

 

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A Reading Program

Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program is best used for students who have a speech impediment which hinders learning to read words correctly.   The method focuses on position of the lips as sounds are formed.  It is labor intensive as it often requires four hours a day to be administered effectively and requires trained Lindamood teachers.  This program has been effective with dyslexics.

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Reading List for High School 

The following are readings for dyslexic high school students:

Book:                                                                                            Author:                         Something UpStairs                                                 Avi

Death Grip                                                               J. Bennett

The Shadow Brothers                                              A. Cannon
Freedom Crossing                                                  M. Clark

Children of the River                                               L. Crew
The Trouble with Lemons                                       D. Hayes

Letters from Rifka                                                   K. Hesse
Bearstone                                                               W. Hobbs
A Place to Belong                                                     J. Nixon

Blizzard                                                                    J. O’Connor
Canyons                                                                   G. Paulsen

Fine White Dust                                                       C. Rylant
The Road to Memphis                                             M. Taylor


A list of books by difficulty can be found at tasaliteracy.com or booksinprint.com

 

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Teaching Adults

Adults learn well in groups and should be taught:

4x/per week at 1 ½  - 2 hour classes
                               OR
2x/per week for 3 hour classes

Expected improvement is about 1 grade level for every 100 hours of instruction.  Practice outside of class will speed the improvement gap faster.

Recommended curriculums:              Adult Resources:              

Language                                        news-for-you.com


Wilson                                             Thumbprint Mysteries at                                                          mhcontemporary.com


Starting Over (EPS books)                  GED @ gedtest.org


Some assistive technology is:

Quicktionary Reading PenII                 wizcomtech.com


American Heritage Dictionary CD-rom – helps pronounce words


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If you enjoyed the summary of this book, then you will really enjoy reading the entire book.  Click the link below to order.

Overcoming Dyslexia: A New and Complete Science-Based Program for Reading Problems at Any Level

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